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Healthy gums must have the following characteristics:
- light red color,
- part of gums that is beneath the teeth neck should look like orange peel,
- no bleeding on irritation, for example when brushing your teeth,
- gingival margins to the tooth should be sharp,
- part of gums between two teeth, so called interdental papilla, should completely fill that space.
The course of gingivitis and periodontal disease
At this stage of disease there is no pain. Also, during the development of periodontal disease from its beginning to end stage (loosening of teeth) pain is not present. Pain only may be caused by complications of periodontal disease. During periodontitis, in addition to inflammation, tissue degradation processes also take place. As a result there is destruction of connective tissue elements and bone that surrounds the tooth.
Loosening of the teeth, as a result of destruction of periodontal tissues, may culminate in tooth loss. As a result of this destruction, migration of teeth may also occur. Unfortunately, teeth can migrate in all directions.
The causes of gingivitis and periodontal disease
The factors which may lead to these dental disease are numerous. Most often it is the result of poor oral hygiene, however, some medications, nutritional deficiencies, systemic diseases, poor prosthetic work may also be the cause.
It is recommended to use soft interdental brushes in the case of severe form of gingivitis.
Neglecting your oral hygiene, which includes daily brushing, massaging the gums and use of dental floss leads to plaque buildup. The longer retention of plaque on the tooth surface causes inflammation of the gums. That condition can be recognized by bleeding from gums during brushing or even spontaneously. If the inflammation of the gums -gingivitis is not treated, it will prosper. The destruction of the deeper parts of the tooth supporting tissues will begin. After a while, it will eventually cause the loosening of tooth and its loss.
Local factors inside mouth
Loss of teeth in one jaw causes the movement of the tooth which is located across from it in the opposite jaw. Therefore, there is a wide space which in turn makes it easier to retain food in this extended region.
Smoking is very harmful to all oral tissues. It has no influence directly to the occurrence of inflammation, but it lowers the ability of organism to repair and defend itself. In such organism, inflammation is easy to develop and faster progress.
In addition to these above mentioned local factors, general factors may also affect these conditions. Age is proved to be one of the factors. Aging weakens our body. Weaker defense mechanisms of the body enable oral diseases to progresses more quickly. Food, too, can affect our health. Lack of vitamins, proteins and calcium have an effect on the defensive response of the organism. This also reduces the possibility of recovery from illness. To aide in recovery from periodontal disease water flossers are highly recommended by dental professionals.
Diabetes and some blood diseases, due to the overall impact on the body, also affect the flow and development of periodontal disease.
Such increased gingiva creates deeper space between her and the tooth (normal depth is 0.5-2.0 mm). That favors the retention of plaque and the development of inflammation.
Similar changes occur during pregnancy. Very often gums during pregnancy swell. This can occur in a few places of the mouth, or may even affect the entire gingiva.
Because of that, pregnant women often notice blood when brushing their teeth.
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